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Dr. Steven Gundry is the Director of the International Heart & Lung Institute in Palm Springs, CA, and the founder of the Center for Restorative Medicine in Palm Springs & in Santa Barbara, CA.


[1] — Brady, PG et al. "Identification Of The Dietary Lectin, Wheat Germ Agglutinin, In Human Intestinal Contents.". Gastroenterology, vol 75, no. (2), 1978, pp. 236-9. NCBI, [Link]

[2] — Pusztai, A et al. "Antinutritive Effects Of Wheat-Germ Agglutinin And Other N-Acetylglucosamine-Specific Lectins.". The British Journal of Nutrition, vol 70, no. (1), 1993, pp. 313-21. NCB,[Link]

[3] — Liener, Irvin E. "Plant Lectins: Properties, Nutritional Significance, And Function". ACS Symposium Series, 1997, pp. 31-43. American Chemical Society (ACS), doi:10.1021/bk-1997-0662.ch003.

[4] — Lallès, Jean-Paul. "Microbiota-Host Interplay At The Gut Epithelial Level, Health And Nutrition". Journal Of Animal Science And Biotechnology, vol 7, no. 1, 2016, p. 66. Springer Nature, doi:10.1186/s40104-016-0123-7.

[5] — Miyake K, Tanaka T, McNeil P. Lectin-Based Food Poisoning: A New Mechanism of Protein Toxicity. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(8):e687. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000687.

[6] — Drago, Sandro et al. "Gliadin, Zonulin And Gut Permeability: Effects On Celiac And Non-Celiac Intestinal Mucosa And Intestinal Cell Lines". Scandinavian Journal Of Gastroenterology, vol 41, no. 4, 2006, pp. 408-419. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/00365520500235334.

[7] — Sjölander, Anita et al. "The Effect Of Concanavalin A And Wheat Germ Agglutinin On The Ultrastructure And Permeability Of Rat Intestine". International Archives Of Allergy And Immunology, vol 75, no. 3, 1984, pp. 230-236. S. Karger AG, doi:10.1159/000233621.

[8] — Ibid. Liener, Irvin pp. 31-43

[9] — (PDF called “Plant Lectins: Versatile Proteins with Important Perspectives in Biotechnology” by Willy J. Peumans and ELS J.M. Van Damme) [file is called lectinorganproof1.pdf]

[10] — (PDF called “Plant Lectins, Chemical and Biological Aspects” in Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio do Janeiro, Vol. 86, Suppl. II, 211-218, 1991) [file is called lectinorganproof2.pdf]

[11] — Cordain, Loren et al. "Modulation Of Immune Function By Dietary Lectins In Rheumatoid Arthritis". British Journal Of Nutrition, vol 83, no. 03, 2000, pp. 207-217. Cambridge University Press (CUP), doi:10.1017/s0007114500000271.

[12] — Fasano, Alessio. "Leaky Gut And Autoimmune Diseases". Clinical Reviews In Allergy & Immunology, vol 42, no. 1, 2011, pp. 71-78. Springer Nature, doi:10.1007/s12016-011-8291-x.